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  • 《大藏經》回家了

    光明日報 李韻 2017.01.20

      《清敕修大藏經》今天入藏故宮!此次入藏故宮的《大藏經》是由唯一存世的官刻大藏經木質經版、也就是當年印制《清敕修大藏經》的經版,印刷而成。

      據悉,此次刊印過程中將原本缺失的9626塊經版補全,首次恢復了乾隆初印版。包括入藏故宮的這套經文在內,此次一共復刻80套經文。未來,所有經版將全部封存入庫,不再刊印。

      清點經版歷時兩年

      《清敕修大藏經》又稱《乾隆大藏經》或《龍藏》,是我國古代最后一部官刻漢文佛藏。這部經書從雍正十三年開雕,至乾隆三年(1738年)竣工,雕成經版79036塊。乾隆四年,第一次印刷100部,稱初印本。

      藏經以《千字文》編號,自“天”字起至“機”字止,共724字,每字一函,全藏共724函,每函10冊,共計7240冊。全藏共收入佛教經、律、論等部著作共1669部,7168卷。經版初刻完成后存于故宮武英殿內,后歷經劫難,幾經輾轉。

      2009年,《清敕修大藏經》經版修復保護工作啟動。“當時,經版松散堆放在市郊的一個臨時庫房里,環境擁擠。”修復項目委員會首席專家延藏法師介紹,大藏經經版每塊重4.5公斤,全部經版總重360噸,總體積超過1000立方米,光是清點工作就歷時了兩年有余。

      補全9626塊佚失經版

      經查實,《清御制龍藏經》經版存69410塊,佚失9626塊,現存中還有20%以上的經版存在不同程度損壞。

      《清敕修大藏經》經版雕刻完成以后,在乾隆時期還經過了三次抽毀、撤出的特別經歷,主要是乾隆曾分別于乾隆三十年、三十四年、四十一年下旨,共撤毀了800余塊經版和其對應的近百卷典籍。在這些撤毀的經版中,包括了錢謙益的著作,武則天、明永樂皇帝等前朝帝王撰寫的文章等。因此,初雕初印的《清敕修大藏經》,罕見全帙。

      “補齊過程非常復雜,我們走訪了全世界40多個國家和地區。”延藏法師介紹,歷代對于經書也有撤毀,乾隆皇帝就出于各種原因三次對經版和經書撤毀。“要找到最初的刊印版,需要大量專業細致的校勘和補缺。”

      此次不僅補全了所有佚失經版,而且工作人員將所有底本進行了掃描,進行重新修版、拼接和數字化儲存。同時,大藏經刊刻時的背景文獻,歷代頒賜、刷印、修補大藏經的文獻資料、乾隆朝三次撤毀經版的詳細記錄等也一并完成數字化存檔。

      經版不再刊印

      如今,經版已經入藏了現代化的專用庫房,面積約6000平方米。工作人員介紹,庫房安裝了各種安防、消防、通風、電子監控、溫濕度監控等設備。“每半年要對經版進行一次熏蒸滅蟲,并隨時觀察蟲蛀和真菌對經版的損壞情況。”

      “經版不會再進行刊印,目前市面上只刊印了80套,其中一套入藏故宮。”工作人員介紹,這些全部是原版手工印刷完成。“連用紙都有講究,使用的是安徽產的手工堿性宣紙。”

      此次入藏故宮的大藏經采用了藍色函套、黃色護板。“史料記載,初印本中只有10套經過了裝幀,其他都是訂好成冊就頒賜到全國各地了。這次入藏故宮的版本全部按照故宮舊藏的傳統工藝制作,力求還原原貌。”

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