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  • 貴州傳統村落的保護與發展探究

    民族文化宮  2017.04.14
         經傳統村落保護發展專家委員會評審認定,到2014年截止,全國共2555個村寨入選中國傳統村落名錄,其中貴州426個,占全國16.7%,居全國第二,其中黔東南292個,黔西南4個,安順34個,遵義13個,貴陽3個,銅仁74個,六盤水5個,畢節1個。

      目前,貴州傳統村落的保護和發展已經受到高度重視,且有的村落在發展旅游方面已逐漸成熟,有的正在處于起步階段,也有的還未采取任何保護和發展的措施,這些保護和發展形式,使貴州傳統村落也顯現出了以下幾方面問題:

      建設性破壞。包括居民自己改建新房屋或修補舊建筑未按照相關規定進行而導致的傳統建筑風貌的破壞、政府對村內基礎設施建設的修建對傳統歷史要素拆除的破壞,還有就是投資建設者在該傳統村落建設控制地帶或某些傳統要素上投資建設與歷史文化不相符或破壞歷史要素原貌的建設性破壞。

      保護性破壞。保護部門不明確,出現某單一文化由多部門管理的現象,而各部門又按照自己的管理辦法進行管理,導致保護方法沖突的產生;有的傳統村落被相關部門靜態保護起來,原居住村民已搬離村內,村內不再有人居住,沒有人居住的傳統村落漸漸地失去了傳統村落的靈魂。

      旅游性破壞。該破壞在發展旅游時就已注定產生,只是破壞程度大小和破壞速度快慢而已。由于旅游業的開發當地居民自己對商業的投入或商業環境的影響,漸漸地開始失去了該地區、該民族原有的樸實和熱情,慢慢地轉換變成了看中經濟利益的商人;游客的蜂擁而至,不同興趣、不同愛好、不同職業及不同教育程度的游客都會給村內的傳統環境造成不同程度的破壞。

      自然性損毀。由于村民對自己歷史文化、民族文化認識和了解的匱乏,未對傳統村落文化引起重視,他們認為這只是他們的日常生活行為和習慣,另外與大城市里的文化和生活相比,自己還會表現出自卑,這也是相關部門對民眾文化認識宣傳和培訓的缺失,應該加強該方面的工作,加大文化教育的投入,增強民族文化的自覺和自信。

      貴州傳統村落由于受當地民族歷史、信仰、生產生活方式、防御以及地理環境等各方面因素的影響,因此村落的空間形態和民俗文化也各不相同。如村落空間形態,建在山坡上的就有以下類型:山腰順勢分層筑臺型村寨、順勢架空生態型村寨、河谷坡地型村寨、橫跨山脊順山就勢而為的村寨;受山地河流影響形成的村寨類型:河谷階梯型村寨、彎曲河谷型村寨、迂回扇形村寨、半島臺地型村寨。除了村落空間整體形態,當然村落內巷道,還有由建筑高度形成的天際輪廓線也是村落的歷史發展和地方特色,應通過借助當地村規民約及制定相關規定和條例加強保護,并嚴格控制和監督。

      傳統村落內的歷史環境要素主要包括傳統民居、公共建筑、巷道、古樹、古井、古橋和古城墻等,一切與當地歷史文化有關要素,都需要盡可能地進行原貌保護和修復。新建公共建筑必須通過相關部門的審核和批準,必須符合村內歷史或當地居民的民族文化,不能照搬照抄,修建出不符合當地民族文化的建筑物或構筑物,即便是相關部門所修建的公共設施也應不破壞歷史要素且盡量與村內環境和文化相協調。傳統村落內,不管是非物質文化還是物質文化都要是當地居民或是當地民族自己在歷史發展過程中自己所創造的、擁有的或是使用的。經證明不是自己民族或當地居民的,但是又在當地存在或是普遍表現或是使用,應當加以注明和解說。采訪傳統文化的繼承人或是掌握者,對他們進行保護文化和發展文化等方面的思想教育及鼓勵,然后將村內的傳統文化及相關人士進行統計和匯編,最后讓村內所有居民都了解自己的傳統文化,并對外進行宣傳,提高自己的民族文化意識。

      筆者認為,貴州傳統村落發展應從以下幾個方面著手:

      政府引導,民眾參與。開啟自下而上保護模式,通過政府引導,民族參與,保護和發展傳統村落。通過民眾的積極參與,活躍傳統村落內的民族氛圍。加強村內居民對社會變化和發展的認識,及科學技術和知識的培訓,與社會發展的步伐同步,但始終不忘記自己的傳統文化并盡量運用到現代社會發展的過程中。

      借助外力,減少壓力。如果傳統村落的發展只依靠政府和當地居民,發展和保護工作的推進速度及執行力度將會受到資金及策略考慮不周全等各方面因素的影響。通過借助社會團體組織、投資商、相關學者及媒體等各方面的共同關注,政府的引導,村民的自主參與,改變傳統的由政府部門主導的自上而下的發展模式,增強傳統村落保護的活力。

      完善設施,留住游客。將村內基礎設施、公共設施、電力、網絡設施等完善,滿足當地居民對目前社會發展成果的享受。同時政府鼓勵和引導并管理當地居民對第三產業的投入,對具備相關投資居民貸款實行利息優惠政策,滿足外來游客居住、購物、娛樂、休閑等方面的要求。

      自強不息,自力更生。加強居民文化素質、民族技藝和科學技術的培訓,增強居民文化遺產保護的知識,提高居民文物保護的意識,保證保護工作的正常進行,促進正確保護方法的具體實施,促進正確保護理念的貫徹。民族傳統技藝的提高,可以提高居民的文化自信和文化自覺。

      傳統村落內具有很多祖輩們留存下來的寶貴財富,這些寶貴財富形成了當地的特色社會資源,對其合理地保護和利用,既增強傳統村落內居民的文化自覺和文化自信,還改變了其收入方式和生活質量,更有利于傳統村落保護和發展目標的實現。

      (本文系貴州民族大學民族地區社會發展研究生教育創新基地成果,作者單位:貴州民族大學建筑工程學院)

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