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  • 穿在身上的歷史和故事

    貴州民族報 李姝爰 2017.04.18
    畢節苗族男裝上的橫紋圖案


    蠶娘圖案


    蝴蝶媽媽圖案


    鳥紋圖案


    魚紋圖案
      刺繡,作為我國優秀的民族工藝,源遠流長,四千年前的《尚書》中就有關于“衣畫而裳繡”的記載,章服制度的規定更在一定程度上促進了刺繡的發展。馳名中外的就有蘇州的蘇繡、湖南的湘繡、四川的蜀繡、廣東的粵繡,被譽為中國的“四大名繡”。然而,遠遁中原、藏匿深山的貴州世居少數民族傳統刺繡工藝,亦是我國重要的非物質文化遺產。民族刺繡工藝多保留于民間,流傳在鄉野,在一定意義上回顧了民族的歷史,表達了民族的思想,具有重要的文化價值。通常歷史傳說、宗教崇拜、生產勞動、愛情理想、家庭生活、自然景物等皆可繡于服飾,以母教女,姐教妹,同齡女孩互相學習借鑒為主,其工藝、技法經過長期的積累和發展已十分的成熟和穩定。刺繡藝術凝聚了貴州世居少數民族婦女對生活的熱愛,體現了她們對美的理解和追求,針法技藝堪稱巧奪天工。在紛繁復雜的刺繡品中,大抵可分為挑花、拼布、錫繡、鎖繡、辮繡、縐繡、打籽繡、馬尾繡、平繡、破線繡、堆繡等十多類,與傳統意義上的“四大名繡”在工藝上有類似之處,卻也不乏獨創之舉。

      貴州的世居少數民族多在其歷史發展之初,沒有文字以記載歷史,于是記錄歷史的重任就被各族群眾創造性地使用“繪畫”的形式來替代,將所繪制的圖案紋樣通過刺繡縫制于衣裝之上,于是他們所穿戴的衣裝便具有了描述歷史,表達感情的功能和作用,被譽為“穿在身上的史書”,因此,衣裝已不僅僅是遮羞避寒的物件,更是凝聚了民族精神和理想的實物,而尤以苗族最為典型。誠然,并非只有苗族將自己的宇宙觀、宗教信仰、圖騰崇拜、歷史記憶、神話傳說、審美情趣、生活憧憬等符號信息鐫刻在衣裝之上,許多其它的世居少數民族也常慣以此法來記錄自己的歷史與文化。貴州世居少數民族的服飾,除了華美的造型、繁多的款式,其服飾之上蘊含的圖案紋樣更需要被人們所關注,這些活態的文化藝術符號成為了解讀民族文化的關鍵載體,代代相傳。

      在民族刺繡中人們經常會見到如魚、鳥、蝴蝶、花等圖案,這些形象有的承載著一段歷史,有的記載著一個傳說,有的包涵了某種生命意識。

      “楓樹”“蚩尤”圖案:“楓樹”、“蚩尤”圖案被廣泛地運用在苗族服飾的刺繡藝術之中,體現的苗族的祖先崇拜意識。相傳蚩尤與黃帝大戰,黃帝請天神相助,殺蚩尤斬其首葬之,首級化為一片楓林。《山海經·大荒南經》記:“有宋山者,有木生山上,名曰楓木。楓木,蚩尤所棄其桎梏,是謂楓木”。《軒轅本紀》也說,黃帝殺蚩尤于黎山之丘,擲械于大荒之中的宋山之上,后化為楓木之林。《述異記》也有:“南中有楓子鬼,楓木之老者為人形。亦呼為靈楓。”的記載。在貴州的黔東南地區,苗族把楓木作為圖騰來崇拜,《苗族古歌》唱道:“還有楓樹干,還有楓樹心,樹干生妹榜,樹心生妹留,古時老媽媽。”苗族認為人類是從楓木中產生的,把蚩尤作為祖先來懷念。由于人類是楓木樹心孕育出的蝴蝶媽媽所生的蛋孵出來的,所以楓木也是人類的“始祖”。在苗族服飾中就經常可見“楓樹”“蚩尤”的形象,體現的就是對于祖先的崇拜。

      龍紋圖案:龍是古老中國的原始圖騰,在漢族地區,龍是皇權的象征,呈現出頭角崢嶸、尖牙利爪的威武形象。但在貴州世居少數民族地區,龍紋卻表現為稚拙天真、憨態可掬,與人和自然萬物十分親近,變化很多,有魚龍、水牛龍、水龍、蠶龍等等。我國殷商時期甲骨文中的“龍”字也與今天仍在苗族地區廣為流傳的“龍紋”服飾圖案十分相似,讓人產生無窮的聯想和思考。

      橫紋圖案:貴州畢節苗族男裝披肩上的菱形圖案,象征了“箭頭”及“可防箭”,裙裝上的“橫紋”圖案,據說代表黃河和長江,是苗族對其祖先不遠萬里、跋山涉水、所過江河的歷史記錄。

      坎肩方形圖案:貴州西北部一帶的苗族女裝,在其長擺衣坎肩上刺繡有方形圖案。這些圖案記錄了這支苗族對于故鄉田園、樹木、星星的向往以及對于祖先遷徙所過的山川河流的追思。

      印紋圖案:貴州貴陽烏當卡堡一帶苗族女盛裝的衣服背部、袖筒處均有挑花四方印、三角印圖案,據當地苗族傳說,這種圖案是苗王的大印,印上是苗王的名字,卡堡苗族因此自稱“印苗”。

      蠶娘圖案:我國是世界上最早種桑養蠶,繅絲織綢的國家,在距今5000年前后的史前時代的黃河流域就已經出現了絲綢。據《史記》記載,黃帝娶西陵氏之女嫘祖為妻,她發明了養蠶,為“嫘祖始蠶”。在貴州黃平苗族女裝的左襟中常常繪有一組“蠶娘圖”,一般由七條、九條或十一條蠶組成,一方面展現了蠶對人類生活的巨大貢獻,另一方面表達了苗族先民種桑養蠶的歷史業績。

      十二古祖圖案:《苗族古歌》傳唱:風生霧、霧生云,云生雨。落到地上長出了楓樹。楓樹長大后,引來兩只鳥雀在枝頭鳴叫,鳥雀的鳴叫聲惹怒了樹下的女神,女神將楓樹砍倒后,樹心化作一只蝴蝶。蝴蝶有一次和水上的泡沫“游方”(即戀愛)懷孕后生下了12個蛋,由脊宇鳥艱難孵化了十二年,最終孵出姜央(人)、雷公、龍王、象、牛、羊、雞、蛇、蜈蚣、山貓、虎、狗共十二兄弟,被苗家尊稱為十二古祖神。這組古神在刺繡中經常出現,以臺江施洞的破線繡最為生動傳神。

      蝴蝶媽媽圖案:其形象為人頭蝶身。苗族稱為:“妹榜妹留”,意為人之祖。《妹榜妹留》是祭祖歌,在十三年一次的祭祖之年,由巫師在端肅的祭祖儀式上唱。苗族年輕姑娘衣襟上的蝴蝶圖案和蝴蝶扣等蝴蝶神話文化實體,體現“祈蝴蝶媽媽庇佑”的心態。蝴蝶媽媽的圖案在刺繡中也廣泛運用。

      水牛圖案:牛是苗族的“十二古祖”之一。相傳蚩尤為炎帝后裔,姜姓,當為“牛首人身”;漢代以來的蚩尤像多作牛首,苗族同胞相傳為蚩尤后裔,十分崇拜水牛,男女盛裝服飾上經常繡有水牛圖案,同時也體現了苗族作為農耕民族,在其現實生活中與水牛的親密伙伴關系。

      鳥紋圖案:貴州丹寨苗族的百鳥衣上大量運用鳥紋圖案和羽毛進行裝飾,反映了他們對自己及祖先的認識和崇拜,他們認為自己是鳥氏族的后代,因而著百鳥衣祭祀祖先,寄寓了對家族興旺繁衍的美好愿望。

      云紋圖案:云紋體現了一個古老民族對于宇宙形成和萬物繁衍的認識與思考,正如苗族古歌里唱的:“遠古的時候,地是這個樣,模糊一團泥,搖擺又晃蕩”這與主流文化中的宇宙起源形成于氣、霧,“混沌初開,乾坤始奠”的世界起源觀在本質上是相同的。水汽和云霧是苗族理念中最早存在的兩種物質,表達了水汽與云霧是“物種盡頭和邊沿”的意義,體現了苗族對萬物形成之初宇宙的認識和理解。

      魚紋圖案:魚紋的原始寓意是生殖崇拜,少數民族崇拜魚,因魚腹內多子,是對旺盛生殖能力的崇拜,在祭祀活動中,魚是必不可少的供品。魚紋圖案寓意人丁興旺,多子多福。而魚紋中的陰陽魚紋看上去很像陰陽太極圖,苗族的老人們認為:“這個就是一家人的意思”。太極八卦是中國陰陽哲學觀、符號化的杰作,一定意義上體現了中華民族的陰陽哲學思想。那么是道家影響了苗族還是苗族對道家的影響,抑或是中華文化的同源共祖,發人深思。

      饕餮紋圖案:“饕餮”是夏商周時期,青銅器、古玉器、古石器上的紋飾,是許多動物圖案的總和,饕餮紋源于5000多年前太湖地區的良渚文化,那是苗族先民蚩尤九黎的發祥地。這種在夏商周以后漢文化中幾乎失傳的古代紋飾,卻在與世隔絕的深山中遺存下來。

      芒紋圖案:對太陽的崇拜,對光明的追求和向往是各族先民的共同理想和追求。服飾中大量太陽紋的運用,也表達了各族先民對太陽和光明的崇拜與執著。

      方形背搭圖案:黔西北一帶的苗族,其服飾上的方形背搭體現了一座城市的記憶,相傳苗族先民居住在美麗的直米力城,那里有寬闊的平原和肥沃的田地,由于格蚩尤老和沙召覺堵敖兩個部落間發生了一場戰爭,格蚩尤老戰敗,為了部族的生存,于黎明時分,率領部族民眾從故鄉直米力城撤離,踏上漫長的遷徙之路,他們翻山越嶺,渡過渾水河,歷經無數的苦難,才來到貴州的威寧地區重建家園。寒來暑往,歲月流逝,人們依然懷念昔日的故鄉直米力城,后人為了紀念先民的這一段歷史,便把故鄉的城池鐫刻在每日穿著的服裝上,每個位置的走向都有其嚴格規定,一針一線都表達了人們對遠古的情感和記憶。

      以苗族刺繡為主要特色的貴州世居少數民族刺繡藝術,是根置于深山的空谷幽蘭,色彩繽紛,花團錦簇,一針針一線線皆是在描繪萬物、書寫歷史、表達情感。神秘的圖案背后往往是深沉的歷史故事,需要我們懷著敬畏,帶著真誠的心去探尋這遺落在民間的美麗。

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