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  • 撒拉族服飾的歷史變遷

    民族文化宮 海東日報 2017.06.05
        青海省循化撒拉族服飾是國家級第二批非物質文化遺產。撒拉族根據所處時代和環境的差異,不同的生活方式乃至不同的氣候特點,創造出獨具特色的民族服飾。對于撒拉族服飾的歷史變遷,文獻資料缺少,只能從民間流傳的歌謠和一鱗半爪的史料中去了解。

    元代的撒拉族服飾



        元代時期,撒拉族先民初居循化時,其服飾仍保留著中亞風格和蒙古族服飾成分。男子戴卷沿羔皮帽或“達斯達爾”,腳穿半腰皮靴,身穿“袷木夾”、白長袍或白汗褂,腰系紅棱布。婦女頭戴赤青的繰絲頭巾,身穿縫花紋貼邊的蒙式長袍,其上穿長坎肩兒。

        撒拉族早期的服飾為何有蒙古族服飾的成分呢?筆者認為:元初,撒拉族先民迫使離開中亞,跟隨蒙古軍一路走來,同餐共宿,形影不離。到達循化街子定居后,在很長一段時間內又與當地的蒙古族相處交往。據民間傳說,撒拉族先民遷徙循化街子之前,這里已經有“馬祖乎”(蒙古人),為和碩特部親王領地,而且在縣域范圍內的夕昌溝口、果什灘溝口、以及崖曼、贊布乎等處,有元時屯兵的六個城堡。當時,街子地區既是蒙古人的屯兵之地,又是他們的放牧之地。因此,蒙古族的衣食住行對初來乍到的撒拉族影響較大,服飾也不例外。

      明代的撒拉族服飾

        明代,撒拉族人口漸多,服飾藝術有所改進。當時,撒拉族被征調的軍事活動達19次之多,而且征戰有功。據《循化志》卷五記載:正統元年“調涼州扒沙等處,剿賊有功”因而“賞狐帽,胖襖(棉襖)”。襖是漢族傳統服飾,有單襖棉襖之分。為此,撒拉族服飾有漢族傳統服飾遺風。與此同時,也有本地藏族服飾成分。

       出征守邊塞的撒拉族將士穿明代戰服,撒拉族的土司、嘎最及富人穿綢緞的長袍馬褂。窮人穿皮褂、馬甲、長褲等,頭戴裹潔、包巾等。不過,穿戴比藏族的略顯短窄而做工精細。

      清朝及民國的撒拉族服飾

        清朝,撒拉族的服飾趨之于漢式化。不論從面料、款式、色彩等方面都比以前豐富。《循化志》卷七風俗章中有撒拉族婚喪禮服的記載為:“其財禮亦當日定議……臨娶又送紅梭布一對,綠梭布一對,藍布挎料布一匹,藍布裙料布一匹,桃紅布主腰料一匹……新婦耳戴大耳環,如鉤、或重至一兩,頭上戴銀花及銀冠子,身穿紅綠布服或綢鍛,多如漢制,腳穿布鞋,青底紅身……”“孝服白布,長大如道袍,腰系白布,鞋亦以白布幔之。”儼然是漢族的喪服。18世紀中葉,撒拉族婦女的衣著為藍色長褲,上套綠色長裙,長至腳踝,上衣則是粉紅色大襟衣服,上套黑色大領寬袖長衫,上衣沒膝。男子服飾為頭戴花翎帽,上身內衣為白汗褡,外衣則為大領大襟長衫,兩邊不開衩,腰間以紅布束之,系結之處在右胯,下身穿黑色褲子,腳穿黑布鞋,鞋尖上翹。

        另外,筆者根據文獻資料和有關圖片資料得知:清朝時,撒拉族婦女喜歡用青布纏頭,身穿大襟坎肩。在喜慶宴會時,她們常常披邊沿有寬幅花邊的披風,并穿鞋幫鑲有“云”字圖案和鞋尖上翹的繡花鞋。由于受漢族傳統的影響,撒拉族貴族家庭中的女子也有纏足的習俗,并穿當地人所稱的“屐屐鞋”,與漢族女子一樣,以有一雙“三寸金蓮”為榮。

        民國年間,伊赫瓦尼教派在循化撒拉族地區得到了廣泛的傳播,他們提出的“遵經革俗”的主張中,其中包括革除不符合伊斯蘭教規的服飾的內容,隨之,在撒拉族中漢式的喪服被摒棄,“包頭”改成了“蓋頭”。男子衣裝主色調為黑、灰、藍等冷顏色。一般情況下,婦女們的蓋頭有三種顏色,青年婦女戴綠色蓋頭,中年婦女戴黑色蓋頭,老年婦女戴白色蓋頭。“夾夾”(指坎肩兒)有長短之分,一般老年婦女穿黑色坎肩兒,中年婦女穿藍色或灰色坎肩兒,年輕婦女穿紅色或幾種顏色搭配的坎肩兒,尤其是花色坎肩兒,使人眼花繚亂,感嘆不已。中老年婦女穿圓口緝鞋,年輕婦女們則穿繡花鞋。后來,由于自然環境、人文環境的變遷,撒拉族也逐漸“入鄉隨俗”,中年男子一般穿寬大的短上衣腰系布帶,頭戴黑色或白色的六牙帽(六邊形帽),類似于漢族的狐皮小帽。腳穿平底布鞋或“嚇熱亥”或麻鞋,老年人則穿白色或黑色的對門襟長衫,做禮拜時頭纏長約數尺的“答斯答爾”(纏頭巾),腳穿“屐窩”,手持木拐仗,青年男子愛穿白色的汗褂,腰系紅花或繡花腰帶,外套黑色坎肩兒,中年婦女穿褲腳拖地的長衣服,腳穿綴以絲穗的,鞋尖翹起上鉤的姑姑鞋,年輕婦女愛穿花布衣服,常在紅衣上套黑色或綠色的長坎肩兒。新娘穿繡有花卉的紅色棉旗袍,腳穿繡花鞋和繡花襪子,頭戴“頭圭”,胸前佩帶“胸護”。走起路來,鳳冠閃閃發亮,“胸護”叮叮咚咚,使宴席場上的每個人禁不住駐足觀看新娘。

    建國后的撒拉族服飾

        全國解放后,尤其是本世紀五十年代以來,撒拉族婦女仍沿用“蓋頭”外,服裝也有所變化。冬季服裝有棉袍,羔皮坎肩兒,棉布和棉布鞋;春夏季服裝有各色的汗褡兒、單層坎肩兒、單褲、單鞋、腰間掛針線包。撒拉族男子秋冬季服裝有氈帽、毛線帽、火車頭帽、耳套、皮襖、棉袍、棉衣、棉坎肩兒、棉褲、“勞特”鞋、棉線頭巾、皮襪子等。春夏季服裝有大襟衫、大襟汗褡兒、黑色坎肩兒、大襠單褲、白頂帽、遮額帽(欲稱罩遮帽)、鴨舌帽、草帽、單布鞋、腰系紅棱布帶。

       婦女講究戴耳環、戴手鐲、盤發髭,不辮發,盤后扎“頭簪”(用金屬等所做成的頭飾),纏包頭,戴花線帽。未出嫁的姑娘留辮子,不戴帽。戴頭巾,喜歡穿寬袖花邊對襟的各色襯衫,胸前佩帶繡花“荷包”,老年人穿大襠褲,戴白頂帽,系白腰帶。若逢冬季,穿皮襪子。由于撒拉族男子比較器重面飾,為此,人到中年,便開始留胡須,有的只留嘴唇上的一條“黑線”,有的把胡須剪短,有的留“山羊胡須”。除此之外,撒拉族男子喜歡在陽光下戴草帽或禮帽,戴石頭鏡,以防日曬和眼睛受損,撒拉族女子為了護手和掩蓋缺牙,時常帶手套,并鑲上金牙。在發飾方面,男子在民國之前留單辮,之后不留辮子或長發,剃光頭,頭發稍微一長,就立即剃頭。未出嫁的少女,在平時,特別注重護理面部,常在臉上擦紅棗汁、蜜汁或胭脂粉。

        改革開放至今,撒拉族的服飾有了質的變化,隨時代的發展,服裝越來越趨于大眾化,過去的皮襖棉袍早已淘汰,取而之代的是皮夾克,羽絨服、西服、羊毛衫等,皮鞋代取了“勞特”鞋和繡花鞋,中年男子一律是西服或休閑服,只是每逢宗教節日或禮拜時戴白頂帽外,平時穿的服裝與漢族服裝相擬,只能從語言上分辨而已,女子的服裝花色品種更趨之于多樣化,款式時髦,緊跟時代潮流,除“蓋頭”仍沿用之外,其它時裝均穿流行裝,戴金銀項鏈、寶石耳環、鉆石手表,身穿透明絲綢衫和緊身健美褲,腳穿高跟尖頭皮鞋,黛眉畫容,展示靚麗風姿。

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