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  • 侗族服飾紋樣及其文化研究

    中國知網 程瀟 張爽 2017.06.19
        摘要:

      侗族是我國發展良好的人口大族之一,有悠久的歷史和文化內涵。侗族服飾文化是侗族傳統文化的有機組成部分,工藝精湛、圖案豐富、民族特色鮮明。精美的飾品和刺繡紋樣象征著侗族婦女的勤勞與智慧,承載著種族繁衍與民族興旺的美好期盼。本文從侗族服飾起源發展,服飾紋樣以及其服飾文化方面進行了研究。

      侗族是中國少數民族之一,源于古代廣東、廣西一帶“百越”族系,現主要聚居在貴州、廣西和湖南三省區,其中以貴州最多,約占全國侗族人口的 56%[1]。在侗族,刺繡、侗歌和戲曲文化成為推動侗族文化生生不息傳承和發展的三駕馬車[2]。近年來隨著我國工業文明的崛起,經濟的發展,審美觀念發生變化,侗族工藝的傳承和發展受到影響,所以研究侗族服飾紋樣及其文化,并對其進行保護和推廣變得尤為重要。

      1 侗族服飾起源和發展

      侗族服飾在春秋戰國時期,侗族先輩便已發明了織布用的斜機,《吳越春秋》就有“越羅谷紗”的記載。兩漢至唐宋時期,侗族紡織技術和印染工藝已有了長足的發展,到北宋時期,靖州等地紡織的白娟、斑細布、白練布等均負盛名。明清時期,侗錦已進入了發展繁榮的時期。直到近現代 20 世紀以來只有南侗才能看到傳統服裝式樣,而北侗基本漢化,服飾與漢族日趨一致。

      2 侗族服飾圖案紋樣

      侗族是一個勤勞的民族,精心設計各種美麗的圖案紋樣對服飾進行美化。侗族服飾圖案紋樣數量繁多數不勝數,大多取材于自然又高于自然多崇拜意義,以下便著重介紹幾種。

      2.1 圖騰紋樣

      龍蛇崇拜——龍蛇紋。在中國古代龍一直作為一種吉祥的象征,經常以云龍、盤龍、二龍戲珠等形式出現。侗族以龍蛇為神靈,其服飾紋樣中的龍紋不似古代朝廷龍紋那樣莊嚴,而是一個善良靈巧且可愛的形象,以特殊針法,馬尾繡做成,并賦予其精巧細膩的神韻。

      “薩歲”崇拜——蜘蛛紋。“薩”在侗族傳統文化是至高無上的神,也被稱為“薩瑪”、“薩天巴”。相傳薩神中的“薩巴隋俄”神,其化身是一只金斑大蜘蛛,因此侗族人把出門見到蜘蛛認為是平安喜慶的吉兆,還有些地方在新婚夫婦的床鋪四角,分別放置用布包裹的蜘蛛,寓意求子求福[3]。

      2.2 植物紋樣和動物紋樣

      植物崇拜——花草紋、樹紋。侗族人民喜在衣服的衣邊和袖口繡上小花,他們不喜牡丹或者蘭花一類的刺繡圖案,大多采用梅花、桃花、李樹花、油桐花、杜鵑花等山野間常見的野花形象。侗族人愛樹,家家戶戶都種樹,樹紋多以太陽為中心,發出光芒,四角為枝葉茂密的榕樹充滿整個畫面,常出現在女子服飾或小兒背帶上。

      魚崇拜——魚紋。侗族是一個農耕民族,多在田中養魚,也愛吃各種魚,他們認為魚的形象可以帶來福音,能夠昭示漁農生產順利,認為魚是潔凈的動物。魚紋作為一種吉祥的紋樣,多出現于服飾圖案紋樣中。

      2.3 自然和天體紋樣

      太陽崇拜——太陽紋。侗族視太陽為“萬物之神”,對太陽十分尊崇,古時有迎太陽的習俗,現部分地區仍然保留這個習俗。太陽紋在侗族服飾紋樣中以多種形式呈現,如具象的圓,圓的周圍用絲線繡出光芒;有時以“卍”字紋表現;有時以“八芒太陽紋”的形式出現,侗族小兒背帶和童帽上時常繡有這種紋樣。

      天、雷崇拜——云雷紋。云雷紋代表天、云和雷,這些紋樣多裝飾于衣服的邊緣處。侗族先民對自然極為崇拜,相信萬物有靈,在侗族人心中,凡龍鳳花鳥、山川河流、古樹巨石、橋梁水井等都能“顯靈”,能驅邪除害,是人們的崇拜對象。他們認為穿上附有這些圖案的衣物,可以祈求平安無災,得到神靈的庇護和保佑。也因此云雷紋和齒紋等紋樣會常常出現在女性的衣服上。童帽上也常仿動物的頭,為了給兒童健康祈禱,具有護身符的含義。

      3 侗族服飾文化內涵

      侗族沒有本民族文字,侗族的服飾就是文化的記載和傳承。侗族人民利用服飾展示民族文化,利用圖案記載民族歷史和民族情感。

      侗族服飾文化擁有兼收并蓄之美,侗族服飾與毗鄰民族服飾有諸多近視的地方,如三江縣林溪侗族使用的具有明顯的滿族風格花冠式步搖,還有去掉苗族銀冠上牛角裝飾的冠狀銀飾;素雅和諧之美,侗族服飾整體比較古樸典雅,色彩上多單色如青色、綠色、黑色、深藍色為主,飾邊帶;勤勞智慧之美,侗族服飾制作是自種,自紡,自織的過程,從種植棉花到紡織紗線,再到精心刺繡、挑花、蠟染需要投入大量人力、物力、財力,陳顯月[4]對侗族刺繡的堅持和發揚就體現了侗族人民的智慧和勤勞。

      結語

      侗族服飾是研究侗族社會經濟文化的“ 活化石”與“ 無字史書”,是一筆巨大的財富,是中華文化寶庫中的一顆璀璨明珠。侗族服飾獨特而優美,可在現代社會發展中侗族服飾文化受到沖擊,我們必須加大對侗族服飾及其文化的關注,加強對它的保護,然后將侗族服飾紋樣及其文化推廣發揚。

      參考文獻:

      [1] 項錫黔,王良范 . 侗族服飾紋樣的藝術人類學解讀 [J]. 貴州民族研究,2013;(06).

      [2] 高溢聰 . 侗族服飾刺繡文化的研究及視覺語言的分析 [J]. 大眾文藝,2015;(22).

      [3] 王彥 . 侗族織繡 [M]. 昆明:云南大學出版社,2006:72.

      [4] 楊仁英,譚元勇 . 顯月:指尖上的多彩人生 [J]. 當代貴州, 2014;(09)

      程瀟,張爽(重慶西南大學紡織服裝學院 重慶 400715)

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