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  • 民族文化宮座落在北京長安街西側,建于1959年9月,是中華人民共和國成立十周年首都北京著名的十大建筑之一。它的建立,體現了黨和國家的民族政策,是中國56個兄弟民族平等、團結、進步、繁榮的象征。

    銀柄包銀木鞘阿昌族長刀

           收藏于民族文化宮博物館的這兩件銀柄包銀木鞘阿昌族長刀,是阿昌族傳統的生產工具和生活用品。一件長93厘米、寬4厘米;一件長88厘米、寬4.5厘米。年代為清代。20世紀50年代,征集于云南省德宏傣族景頗族自治州隴川縣戶撒阿昌族鄉。

    阿昌刀,因主要生產于云南省德宏州傣族景頗族自治州隴川縣戶撒阿昌族鄉而又名戶撒刀。阿昌刀歷史悠久,種類眾多,工藝獨特,技藝精湛,內涵豐富,極具地區特點和民族特色。它與新疆維吾爾族的英吉沙刀,甘肅省保安族的保安刀,并稱我國三大民族刀具。2006年,阿昌刀鍛制技藝經國務院批準列入第一批國家級非物質文化遺產名錄

    一、阿昌刀的歷史淵源

    阿昌刀,約興起于明代明軍入云南時期,至今已有600多年歷史。

    史料關于阿昌刀的來源:據史料記載,明洪武年間,明朝皇帝派沐英西征云南,在公元1441—1449年間三征麓川。以后,中緬邊境戰事頻繁,整個德宏邊關大軍云集。由于官軍離后方戰線太長,為保證兵器供應,明軍選擇地勢隱蔽的戶撒地區修理制作兵器,并對戶撒實行半軍事化管理,以村寨為單位,進行分工生產。從此,云南德宏戶撒阿昌族地區成為了保衛滇西邊防中發揮著主要作用的兵工廠戶撒阿昌族工匠不斷吸收冶鐵制作兵器技術,打制刀具的技術益見精巧,形成了獨具特色的阿昌刀工藝。民國年間,阿昌刀制作生產興盛,戶撒商賈云集,熱鬧非凡。刀具輸出的興旺,給戶撒帶來了經濟和文化的興旺,出現了五山六寺六會九擺九塔四十七奘的繁華景象。

    關于阿昌刀的發展歷程:阿昌刀不僅單指刀具,而是泛指諸如兵器、農具、家用刀具等鐵制產品。縱觀阿昌刀600多年來的制作發展歷史,最初生產的品種主要為兵器、馬掌和農具。后來開始生產斧頭、柴刀、菜刀、背刀和佩刀等。其中的各式背刀和佩刀因鋼性好、式樣美觀大方,深受當地人民和東南亞各國人民喜愛,“阿昌刀”由此獲得“煉極精純,柔可繞指,剁鐵如泥”的美譽。中華人民共和國成立后,隴川縣戶撒地區曾在原有基礎上,有計劃有規模地組織過阿昌刀品種的設計、開發和生產。品種也擴大到砍刀、矛頭、鐮刀、斧頭、鋤頭、犁、耙齒、釘耙、剪刀、馬掌、鍋鏟、鐵鏟、勺、鑿子、錘、破楔、鏨子及三腳架、火鉗等品種。改革開放以來,家庭手工業作坊開始逐步恢復,鐵制品和刀具便逐年以一定規模和速度增長。產品遠銷內蒙古、青海、甘肅、西藏、四川等省區,以及東南亞地區,深受本民族和當地漢、傣、景頗、佤、傈僳、藏、白等民族的喜愛。

    二、阿昌刀的豐富種類

    阿昌刀種類繁多,工藝特別,有長刀(背刀)、小刀(小尖刀)、砍刀、藏刀、寶劍等近百種花色品種,工藝方面長刀(背刀)、小刀和藏刀最為精巧和典型。

    長刀也叫“背刀”,分佩帶型和實用型兩類。佩帶型刀或尖頭或平頭,均配有工藝精致的銀制柄、銀制鞘,系有紅纓背帶,刀柄又分平底狀和蒜頭狀兩種。背刀的另一種是寬葉齊頭,單面鞘,藤篾箍,頂端寬大,呈燕尾形,刀鞘漸寬長,梢部微翹,有制作夸張的特點,背于身上顯得格外英武。長刀中大量生產、普遍使用的是黑長刀(長砍刀)。這種刀,刀葉寬厚,外觀粗糙,是生產、生活中的主要用具,薅秧時砍埂,開地時砍草、砍樹,砍削木制工具、破竹篾等,為西南邊疆各族人民所喜愛。刀型分直刀葉和彎刀葉兩種,主要用于砍削竹木。長刀中的精品為寶劍和蛇形刀、手杖刀。寶劍古為貢品,難在市場上見到,今為體育健身用品及家庭裝飾品。制作工藝從鍛造到打磨都格外精細。其刀葉寒光閃閃,鋒利無比。刀葉體長約80厘米,柄部最厚處也只有4、5毫米。特殊加工的劍可折,彎如殘月,松手即彈直復原。寶劍的外裝有銀鞘柄和銅、銀箍套的木鞘木柄,工藝十分考究,非名師制作不成。這種長劍的前身就是傳說中的腰帶刀,出門時纏于腰間,遇敵時可放開彈直作戰。故有“柔可繞指”的神奇說法。蛇形刀梢部彎曲呈波狀,有的頂端開小口,尤如蛇舌行進。手杖刀刀體窄長,木柄彎曲45度,插入棍式殼中,酷似手杖,攜帶外出一般人不知道是暗器。

    另外,花鋼也是長刀中的精品。它采用紅、白鐵皮和青鋼混合打制而成,具體為紅鐵皮一層,白鐵皮一層,疊起,然后燒化鐵皮的表面讓它們粘成一塊鐵條,刀口背上加青鋼,打成刀型后,把它鏟白,磨光滑,刀面上就呈現出紅、白、青三種顏色,花鋼背刀由此得名,花鋼背刀刀體美觀,刀口鋒利,深受滇緬邊境各族男子青睞,既是顯示英武的裝飾品,也是農耕伐木的生產工具和防身武器。

    在云南省德宏傣族景頗族自治州隴川縣及周邊鄰縣各民族中使用最廣泛的還有阿昌砍刀,有鐵柄和木柄之分,農村中家家必備,勞動者人人皆有,上山下田不離左右。此外,還有菜刀、鐮刀、家家戶戶亦不可少。切菜刀除戶撒本地區大量使用外,還銷往外地。鋸齒鐮刀是很有特點的,周邊廣大地區農民特別喜歡使用。

    三、阿昌刀的工藝特征及其文化內涵

    阿昌刀工藝獨特,技藝精湛。阿昌刀具有嚴格的標準,要求刀面要正,刀口要平整。刀具的刀殼和刀把多數由楠木加工而成,也有用銅、銀打造的。刀殼的紋路圖案造型都是以點和線為主,點的大小變化多樣,排列疏密有序。刀身多采用堅韌耐勞的彈簧鋼板和紅鋼材質制成。刀身以月亮為原型,其刀頭為月牙頭。

    阿昌刀的制作工具、時間和工序:阿昌刀制作工具有木制風箱鐵、泥、石混合做成的火爐,以及鐵錘、鐵鉗、鐵枕等。各村寨加工制作阿昌刀的時間大致相同,一般集中在每年的秋、冬兩季。阿昌族工匠至今還流傳著一個不成文的習慣,即在月亮升起的時候打刀,在太陽升起的時候修刀。主要分為八道工序:第一、選料。也叫下料或落料,過去,原料選用云南省保山、騰沖一帶出產的鋼材,現在多以汽車的廢鋼板和各地上好鋼材為主;第二、制毛坯。即把鋼材加溫后錘打出毛坯;第三、鍛打。對毛坯進行反復加熱、錘打鍛制,修去多余部分,定出要打制的刀型;第四、粗加工。用粗砂輪磨掉刀型多余部分;第五、開槽修飾。在刀葉上根據需要拉槽,雕刻藝術裝飾;第六、淬火。阿昌刀最核心的技術就在于淬火,淬火的過程往往決定著一把阿昌刀的品質。一把經過淬火的品質良好的阿昌刀,質地精良,鋒利耐用,具有“柔可繞指,削鐵如泥”之譽。第七、精加工。用細砂輪打磨、刨光;第八、配刀把和刀鞘。刀把和刀鞘多用楠木加工而成,有的用銅、銀皮包裹,上面雕刻裝飾有各種花紋圖案,如“猛虎長嘯”“東山日出”“飛燕迎春”“十二屬相”等。佩刀上還系有紅纓背帶。匕首的把多用牛角雕刻裝飾而成。

    阿昌刀紋樣圖案的種類:阿昌刀紋樣圖案的種類豐富多樣,主要有卷草紋動植物組合紋、幾何紋、瑞獸紋及吉祥圖案、仿織物紋理圖樣及建筑圖案等。刀葉及刀鞘上都喜歡用具有一定節奏和韻律的卷草紋飾。而以卷草紋擬態龍、鳳、孔雀等組合紋樣更是阿昌刀一絕。幾何紋,以漢族回紋和景頗族三角形復合幾何紋為主。充分說明了漢族和景頗族文化對于阿昌刀裝飾圖案設計的影響。瑞獸紋樣及吉祥圖案是在漢族傳統瑞獸和吉祥圖案的基礎上,經過有機的組合和設計形成獨特的圖案風格。有龍飛鳳舞、龍騰虎躍、百鳥朝鳳、魚躍龍門、日出東方等等圖案組合,也有將平面圖案立體裝飾的手法。

    阿昌族人民不僅擅長打刀,也非常愛刀,每家每戶有數把阿昌刀,并且至少要有一把長鋼刀。它既是顯示英武的裝飾品,也是農耕伐木的生產工具和防身武器。青年男子結婚時,總是要身背長刀,方顯得英姿勃勃,這種風俗一直延續至今。在有些阿昌族地區還流行著一個很特別的習俗,女方家長在選女婿的時候,不僅要看女婿的人品德行,還有一個重要的指標就是看小伙子會不會打刀。

    民族文化宮博物館的這兩件銀柄包銀木鞘阿昌族長刀,刀葉用上好的鋼板制作而成,呈平頭狀,刻有花草、幾何紋圖案,刀鞘、刀柄為楠木包銀皮,銀皮上刻植物、織物、幾何、“壽”字花紋,鑲景泰藍圖案。其制作精美,年代久遠,是阿昌刀之精品。為我們研究阿昌刀的制作歷史、傳統技藝及其豐富的文化內涵等,提供了寶貴的實物資料。

    (撰稿:們發延)    

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